Find the odd man out nitrogen neon argon helium
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Odd one out nitrogen ,argon,helium,neon.
Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens.
It is a common element in the universe , estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen , a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N 2. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids and thus proteins , in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate.
The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia , nitric acid, organic nitrates propellants and explosives , and cyanides , contain nitrogen. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N 2 into useful compounds , but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy.
Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers , and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue.
Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules : for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines , act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters.
Nitrogen compounds have a very long history, ammonium chloride having been known to Herodotus. They were well known by the Middle Ages. Alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis strong water , as well as other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium salts and nitrate salts.
The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia royal water , celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold , the king of metals.
The discovery of nitrogen is attributed to the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in , who called it noxious air. Nitrogen was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele ,  Henry Cavendish ,  and Joseph Priestley ,  who referred to it as burnt air or phlogisticated air.
Though Lavoisier's name was not accepted in English, since it was pointed out that almost all gases indeed, with the sole exception of oxygen are mephitic, it is used in many languages French, Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Russian, Albanian, Turkish, etc. Chaptal's meaning was that nitrogen is the essential part of nitric acid , which in turn was produced from nitre.
The earliest military, industrial, and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate , most notably in gunpowder , and later as fertiliser. In , Lord Rayleigh discovered that an electrical discharge in nitrogen gas produced "active nitrogen", a monatomic allotrope of nitrogen. For a long time, sources of nitrogen compounds were limited. Natural sources originated either from biology or deposits of nitrates produced by atmospheric reactions.
Nitrogen fixation by industrial processes like the Frank—Caro process — and Haber—Bosch process — eased this shortage of nitrogen compounds, to the extent that half of global food production see Applications now relies on synthetic nitrogen fertilisers. A nitrogen atom has seven electrons. In the ground state, they are arranged in the electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 x 2p 1 y 2p 1 z. It therefore has five valence electrons in the 2s and 2p orbitals, three of which the p-electrons are unpaired.
It has one of the highest electronegativities among the elements 3. The light noble gases , helium , neon , and argon , would presumably also be more electronegative, and in fact are on the Allen scale. Due to these very high figures, nitrogen has no simple cationic chemistry. The lack of radial nodes in the 2p subshell is directly responsible for many of the anomalous properties of the first row of the p-block , especially in nitrogen, oxygen , and fluorine.
The 2p subshell is very small and has a very similar radius to the 2s shell, facilitating orbital hybridisation. It also results in very large electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons in the 2s and 2p shells, resulting in very high electronegativities. Hypervalency is almost unknown in the 2p elements for the same reason, because the high electronegativity makes it difficult for a small nitrogen atom to be a central atom in an electron-rich three-center four-electron bond since it would tend to attract the electrons strongly to itself.
Thus, despite nitrogen's position at the head of group 15 in the periodic table, its chemistry shows huge differences from that of its heavier congeners phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , and bismuth. Nitrogen may be usefully compared to its horizontal neighbours carbon and oxygen as well as its vertical neighbours in the pnictogen column, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
Although each period 2 element from lithium to oxygen shows some similarities to the period 3 element in the next group from magnesium to chlorine; these are known as diagonal relationships , their degree drops off abruptly past the boron—silicon pair.
The similarities of nitrogen to sulfur are mostly limited to sulfur nitride ring compounds when both elements are the only ones present. Like carbon, nitrogen tends to form ionic or metallic compounds with metals. Nitrogen forms an extensive series of nitrides with carbon, including those with chain-, graphitic- , and fullerenic -like structures.
It resembles oxygen with its high electronegativity and concomitant capability for hydrogen bonding and the ability to form coordination complexes by donating its lone pairs of electrons. There are some parallels between the chemistry of ammonia NH 3 and water H 2 O. Nitrogen has a negative electron affinity , which means that energy is required to add an electron to it. This is because nitrogen has three p-orbitals each occupied with one electron.
An incoming electron will experience significant repulsion from the electrons in these orbitals. This does not happen with carbon, which has one unoccupied p sub shell. Nor does it occur with oxygen, since the increased nuclear charge is sufficient to overcome inter-electron repulsion effects. This is not possible for its vertical neighbours; thus, the nitrogen oxides , nitrites , nitrates , nitro- , nitroso -, azo -, and diazo -compounds, azides , cyanates , thiocyanates , and imino -derivatives find no echo with phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, or bismuth.
By the same token, however, the complexity of the phosphorus oxoacids finds no echo with nitrogen. Nitrogen has two stable isotopes : 14 N and 15 N. The first is much more common, making up This leads to an atomic weight of around The relative abundance of 14 N and 15 N is practically constant in the atmosphere but can vary elsewhere, due to natural isotopic fractionation from biological redox reactions and the evaporation of natural ammonia or nitric acid.
These reactions typically result in 15 N enrichment of the substrate and depletion of the product. The heavy isotope 15 N was first discovered by S. The low natural abundance of 15 N 0. As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio for 1 H is about times as much as that for 15 N at the same magnetic field strength.
Of the ten other isotopes produced synthetically, ranging from 12 N to 23 N, 13 N has a half-life of ten minutes and the remaining isotopes have half-lives on the order of seconds 16 N and 17 N or milliseconds. No other nitrogen isotopes are possible as they would fall outside the nuclear drip lines , leaking out a proton or neutron.
The radioisotope 16 N is the dominant radionuclide in the coolant of pressurised water reactors or boiling water reactors during normal operation, and thus it is a sensitive and immediate indicator of leaks from the primary coolant system to the secondary steam cycle, and is the primary means of detection for such leaks.
It is produced from 16 O in water via an n,p reaction in which the 16 O atom captures a neutron and expels a proton. It has a short half-life of about 7. Atomic nitrogen, also known as active nitrogen, is highly reactive, being a triradical with three unpaired electrons. Free nitrogen atoms easily react with most elements to form nitrides, and even when two free nitrogen atoms collide to produce an excited N 2 molecule, they may release so much energy on collision with even such stable molecules as carbon dioxide and water to cause homolytic fission into radicals such as CO and O or OH and H.
Atomic nitrogen is prepared by passing an electric discharge through nitrogen gas at 0. Given the great reactivity of atomic nitrogen, elemental nitrogen usually occurs as molecular N 2 , dinitrogen. Triple bonds have short bond lengths in this case, There are some theoretical indications that other nitrogen oligomers and polymers may be possible. If they could be synthesised, they may have potential applications as materials with a very high energy density, that could be used as powerful propellants or explosives.
The opposite is true for the heavier pnictogens, which prefer polyatomic allotropes. This structure is similar to that of diamond , and both have extremely strong covalent bonds , resulting in its nickname "nitrogen diamond". Below It forms a significant dynamic surface coverage on Pluto  and outer moons of the Solar System such as Triton. It is very weak and flows in the form of glaciers and on Triton geysers of nitrogen gas come from the polar ice cap region.
These complexes , in which a nitrogen molecule donates at least one lone pair of electrons to a central metal cation, illustrate how N 2 might bind to the metal s in nitrogenase and the catalyst for the Haber process : these processes involving dinitrogen activation are vitally important in biology and in the production of fertilisers. Dinitrogen is able to coordinate to metals in five different ways.
A few complexes feature multiple N 2 ligands and some feature N 2 bonded in multiple ways. Today, dinitrogen complexes are known for almost all the transition metals , accounting for several hundred compounds. They are normally prepared by three methods: . Nitrogen bonds to almost all the elements in the periodic table except the first three noble gases , helium , neon , and argon , and some of the very short-lived elements after bismuth , creating an immense variety of binary compounds with varying properties and applications.
Many stoichiometric phases are usually present for most elements e. They may be classified as "salt-like" mostly ionic , covalent, "diamond-like", and metallic or interstitial , although this classification has limitations generally stemming from the continuity of bonding types instead of the discrete and separate types that it implies.
They are normally prepared by directly reacting a metal with nitrogen or ammonia sometimes after heating , or by thermal decomposition of metal amides: . Many variants on these processes are possible.
Azides of the B-subgroup metals those in groups 11 through 16 are much less ionic, have more complicated structures, and detonate readily when shocked. Many covalent binary nitrides are known.
The essentially covalent silicon nitride Si 3 N 4 and germanium nitride Ge 3 N 4 are also known: silicon nitride in particular would make a promising ceramic if not for the difficulty of working with and sintering it. In particular, the group 13 nitrides, most of which are promising semiconductors , are isoelectronic with graphite, diamond, and silicon carbide and have similar structures: their bonding changes from covalent to partially ionic to metallic as the group is descended.
In particular, since the B—N unit is isoelectronic to C—C, and carbon is essentially intermediate in size between boron and nitrogen, much of organic chemistry finds an echo in boron—nitrogen chemistry, such as in borazine "inorganic benzene ".
Nevertheless, the analogy is not exact due to the ease of nucleophilic attack at boron due to its deficiency in electrons, which is not possible in a wholly carbon-containing ring. The largest category of nitrides are the interstitial nitrides of formulae MN, M 2 N, and M 4 N although variable composition is perfectly possible , where the small nitrogen atoms are positioned in the gaps in a metallic cubic or hexagonal close-packed lattice.
They have a metallic lustre and conduct electricity as do metals. They hydrolyse only very slowly to give ammonia or nitrogen. Industrially, ammonia NH 3 is the most important compound of nitrogen and is prepared in larger amounts than any other compound, because it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilisers.
It is a colourless alkaline gas with a characteristic pungent smell.
From core concepts to current applications, Chemistry: The Practical Science promotes an interrogative approach that develops effective problem solvers and critical thinkers for today's world. Using the text and its pedagogical features as a model, students learn to appreciate the role of questioning in the process of chemistry and begin to think like chemists. In addition, applications woven throughout the narrative, examples, and exercises present core chemical concepts in the context of everyday life. This integrated approach encourages curiosity and demonstrates the relevance of chemistry and its uses in students' lives, their future careers, and their world.
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odd man out - helium, neon, argon, krypton?
Astronomer Koerner and biologist LeVay plot scenarios for extraterrestrial life in this sharp, enthusiastic, and skeptically tempered overview of "cosmic biology. Read full review. Planetary scientist Koerner and neuroanatomist LeVay have written a clear, concise, and engaging overview of the hypotheses, experiments, explorations, and issues that surround exobiology, the search Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Oxford University Press Amazon. David W. Koerner , Simon LeVay. Oxford University Press , Nov 15, - Science - pages. The discovery of life on other planets would be perhaps the most momentous revelation in human history, more disorienting and more profound than either the Copernican or Darwinian revolutions, which knocked the earth from the center of the universe and humankind from its position of lofty self-regard.
Find the Odd man out helium lithium neon argon
Pustak Mahal Amazon. Pustak Mahal Editorial Group. It is a common sentiment expressed by many students from time to time. The answer to this is simple.
Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties because the atoms of those elements have the same number of electrons in their outer shell. Lithium , sodium and potassium are in Group 1. They all have one electron in their outer shell.
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The questions posted on the site are solely user generated, Doubtnut has no ownership or control over the nature and content of those questions. Doubtnut is not responsible for any discrepancies concerning the duplicity of content over those questions. Study Materials. Crash Course. Question : Odd one out nitrogen ,argon,helium,neon.
Paul B. Kelter , Michael D. Mosher , Andrew Scott. From core concepts to current applications, Chemistry: The Practical Science makes the connections from chemistry concepts to the world we live in, developing effective problem solvers and critical thinkers for today's visual, technology-driven world. Students learn to appreciate the role of asking questions in the process of chemistry and begin to think like chemists.
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Astronomer Koerner and biologist LeVay plot scenarios for extraterrestrial life in this sharp, enthusiastic, and skeptically tempered overview of "cosmic biology. Planetary scientist Koerner and neuroanatomist LeVay have written a clear, concise, and engaging overview of the hypotheses, experiments, explorations, and issues that surround exobiology, the search Oxford University Press Amazon. David W.