Male intimate partner violence offenders
Across U. Approximately 1 in 10 men in the U. Commonly reported IPV-related impacts among male victims were fear, concern for safety, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, among others. Survey data have found that men experience a high prevalence of intimate partner violence, sexual violence and stalking. Most first-time victimizations occur before the age 25, with many victims first experiencing violence before age These forms of violence can happen in childhood, teen years, or in adulthood.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: 'The Day Ahead' looks at LGBTQ domestic violence
Intervening with perpetrators of intimate partner violence: A global perspective
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Finalmente los maltratadores NP no se caracterizaban por ninguna de las variables relacionadas con la criminalidad y la reincidencia. Different studies have proposed that batterers can be classified into distinct groups according to psychopathology, violence severity and frequency.
The aim of the current study was to define a data-based batterer's typology and its implications for rehabilitation.
Data were collected from male sentenced for intimate partner violence of them to prison and 76 to community service. Subsequent analysis showed that AV batterers were profiled through the perpetration of physical and psychological violence, antisocial behaviour, deviant lifestyle, criminal records, inter parental violence and drug abuse; DB batterers, were profiled through behaviours of psychological violence, physical aggression and hostility, clinical symptomatology e.
Multinomial logistic regression supported different logistic models for batterer types in terms of psychopathological, antisocial and perpetrated violence-type variables. Implications of batterer typology on treatment are discussed.. The most prominent typology of batterers was developed by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart These authors conducted a survey on 15 batterer typologies and their analysis revealed that men who are violent towards their partners showed heterogeneity in individual characteristics in what concerns three theoretical dimensions: a severity and frequency of marital violence; b generality of the violence i.
FO batterers were involved uniquely in marital violence and showed the lowest levels of psychological and sexual abuse. DB men are engaged in moderate to severe marital violence, primarily directed towards their partner, but they are also engaged in some violent behaviours outside their homes. GVA batterers are predicted to be the most violent subtype. They engage in moderate to severe levels of marital violence and extra-familiar violence and often possess criminal records.
Finally, low level antisocial LLA had moderate scores on measures of antisocial behaviour, marital violence and general violence Holtzworth-Munroe et al. Several studies published since the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's review supported their typology Stoops et al. Nevertheless, research on this area presents some limitations. Additionally, the data-based resulting typology will be contrasted in both predictive variables and those related to treatment and recidivism.
Data was gathered from convicted male batterers, 76 in community and in prison. The community group was composed of 16 batterers The participants' average age was Nearly half of them The BSI Derogatis, is a self-report measure that consists of 53 items assessing psychological symptoms. Items are rated on a five-point scale, ranged from 0 not at all to 4 extremely , to reflect the level of distress an individual has experienced from each of the symptoms during the previous seven days.
BSI has shown acceptable internal consistencies ranging from. In the present survey, the internal consistency ranged from. Items are grouped into two subscales: Physical Violence and Psychological Violence.
In the present sample, the internal consistency was. There are four subscales: Physical Aggression nine items , Verbal Aggression five items , Anger seven items , and Hostility eight items , which can be summed up in a total aggression score. The internal consistency analysis evaluated by the alpha coefficient revealed. In the current sample, internal consistency ranged from. An early exploratory factor analysis indicated two correlated dimensions: factor 1 and factor 2.
In a recent formulation, Hare and Neumann advocated that at least four latent variable dimensions are needed to represent PCL-R construct of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial dimension.
In the current sample, the internal consistency for factor 1 was. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was used to measure the degree of inter-rater reliability, ranging from. Socio-demographic Questionnaire. A brief socio-demographic questionnaire, developed to serve the purposes of the present study, was used to assess the participants' age, marital status and socioeconomic status.
Information about childhood victimisation, criminal record and drug and alcohol abuse were assessed using PCL-R semi-structured interview. Before gathering data, the institutions where the sample was recruited stated their formal consent, i.
All the participants completed a two-part intake process. The first part of the intake consisted of a semi-structured interview, which is an element of the PCL-R assessment, and socio-demographic information. In the second part, the participants took a set of psychological tests that assessed the three dimensions used to create batterer types i. This assessment was carried out during the year , by the first author of this survey. Following the guidelines of previous research strategies Holtzworth-Munroe et al.
Accordingly, the following variables for cluster analysis were used: depression and paranoid ideation dimensions BSI , antisocial and affective factors PCL-R , physical and psychological violence scales IVC , and physical aggression and hostility scales AQ.
In view of the estimation of the number of clusters, Huss and Ralston's solution was adopted: firstly, the dendogram for the overall solution was analysed; secondly, the number of participants in each cluster was considered; and thirdly, the previous literature and empirical research on batterers' typologies was examined.
For the k -means cluster analysis, z -transformations for all variables were performed to standardise the measurement ranges. Finally, post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni correction were carried out. Additional analyses were performed to compare the batterers' types in criminological and personal variables. Post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni correction were performed. Finally, multinomial logistic regression analysis was done to contrast if the batterers' types were adjusted to different explanatory models psychopathology, antisocial disorder, and degree of perpetrated violence.
In order to create the empirically derived batterer subgroups, a hierarchical cluster analysis, using Ward's method, was carried out on the eight selected variables, displaying a three-cluster solution. Then, to validate the initial findings a k -means cluster analysis was conducted in the cluster centres produced by the initial analysis.
As a whole, these results resemble the typology proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart Figure 1. Average z -score for the cluster solution. Univariate analysis see Table 1 revealed a significant difference mediated by the batterer type factor for physical violence, explaining Post-hoc comparisons, with Bonferroni correction.
The analysis also showed a significant difference in the batterer types for psychological violence. Post-hoc tests, with Bonferroni correction, revealed significantly more psychological violent behaviours i. A significant difference concerning the batterer types was found for physical aggression, explaining Post-hoc tests, with Bonferroni correction, showed that DB batterers are significantly more physically aggressive than NP and AV batterers.
As for hostility, results also exhibited significant differences obtained by the batterer typology. Furthermore, hostility explained Post-hoc comparisons, with Bonferroni correction, showed significantly higher scores in hostility for DB in comparison to AV and NP batterers.
Additionally, a significant difference in the batterer types was also found for depression and paranoid ideation. Post-hoc tests, with Bonferroni correction, showed that DB batterers had significantly higher scores in both dimensions, when compared with AV and NP batterers.
As for the affective factor, results also showed a significant difference in the batterer types, explaining Lastly, meaningful differences were found for PCL antisocial facet. Post-hoc tests, with Bonferroni correction, showed that DB and AV batterers were characterised through more antisocial behaviours i.
Batterer types and criminological and personal variables. Post-hoc comparisons, with Bonferroni correction, established that AV batterers. Post-hoc comparisons, with Bonferroni correction, revealed that AV. Post-hoc comparisons, with Bonferoni correction, indicated that AV batterers. Post-hoc tests, with Bonferroni correction, revealed that AV. Post-hoc tests, with Bonferroni correction, showed that AV and DB batterers groups scored significantly higher in the lifestyle facet impulsivity, boredom proneness, irresponsibility, parasitic lifestyle, lack of long-term goals , when compared with NP batterers.
No differences were observed for the batterer typology factor in the interpersonal facet. Post-hoc comparisons, with Bonferroni correction, revealed substantial differences, in all the clinical dimensions, between DB batterers and NP and AV groups. Concisely, DB batterers manifested more clinical symptoms of somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, generalised and phobic anxiety, and psychoticism, when compared with NP and AV batterers. Logistic models of batterer types.
As a consequence of the results above, that revealed a tripartite batterer typology, a potential discriminative value of the variables and their potential implications to batterer treatment, multinomial logistic regressions were performed to analyse if the batterer types were based on different explanatory variables: psychopathological, antisocial and type of perpetrated violence.
In the first model, BSI psychopathological dimensions i. This model classified correctly The model correctly classifies Results supported that antisocial personality variables only classified NP batterers who, according to previous results, did not fulfill the criteria of antisocial personality, i.
A final multinomial logistic regression was performed for the batterer and violence types, taking as covariates physical violence, psychological violence, physical aggression and hostility, and the batterer typology AV, NP, and DB as the dependent variable.
The model correctly classified This subtype did not exhibit clinical elevations in depression and paranoid ideation or in physical aggression and hostility, but showed higher scores in the affective facet.
They also presented a history of exposure to interparental violence and reported more physical abuse in childhood. These findings are supported by previous studies e. Furthermore, these batterers assume a deviant lifestyle and antisocial behaviour and, taking into account the prognosis of persistent offending related to psychological distress, they consequently have more criminal records.
Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking Among Men
Papers addressing both the inquisitorial and the adversarial legal systems will be welcome as well as papers based on concrete laws of a European or Latin-American country. Neither the Editors nor the Publishers will accept responsibility for the views or statements expressed by the authors. The journal is aimed at researchers, academics and professionals in Psychology, Law, Social Work, Forensic Sciences, Educators and, in general, people related with Social Sciences and the Law. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years.
.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Domestic Violence: Risk Factors and Interventions Video – Brigham and Women’s Hospital