What did victoria look like as a young woman
Throughout the 19th century, every British royal had more than a few quirks. Most women in that time period deprived themselves of food, even going so far as to swallow tapeworms to remain dangerously thin. Queen Victoria, however, had a voracious appetite, and everyone knew it. She loved to eat, and she ate a lot. Interestingly, though, the queen could be quite obsessive about her weight, at least during the early years of her rule.
23 Of Queen Victoria’s Most Surprising Eating Habits
The status of women in the Victorian era was often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between the United Kingdom's national power and wealth and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions. During the era symbolized by the reign of British monarch Queen Victoria , women did not have the right to vote, sue, or own property.
At the same time, women participated in the paid workforce in increasing numbers following the Industrial Revolution. Feminist ideas spread among the educated middle classes, discriminatory laws were repealed, and the women's suffrage movement gained momentum in the last years of the Victorian era.
In the Victorian era, women were seen, by the middle classes at least, as belonging to the domestic sphere , and this stereotype required them to provide their husbands with a clean home, to put food on the table and to raise their children. Women's rights were extremely limited in this era, losing ownership of their wages, all of their physical property, excluding land property, and all other cash they generated once married.
Under the law the married couple became one entity represented by the husband, placing him in control of all property, earnings, and money. In addition to losing money and material goods to their husbands, Victorian wives became property to their husbands, giving them rights to what their bodies produced: children, sex and domestic labor.
Their mutual matrimonial consent therefore became a contract to give herself to her husband as he desired. The rights and privileges of Victorian women were limited, and both single and married women had to live with hardships and disadvantages. Victorian women were disadvantaged both financially and sexually, enduring inequalities within their marriages and society.
There were sharp distinctions between men's and women's rights during this era; men were allotted more stability, financial status, and power over their homes and women. Marriages for Victorian women became contracts  which were extremely difficult if not impossible to get out of during the Victorian era. Women's rights groups fought for equality and over time made strides in attaining rights and privileges; however, many Victorian women endured their husband's control and even cruelty, including sexual violence, verbal abuse, and economic deprivation,  with no way out.
While husbands participated in affairs with other women, wives endured infidelity, as they had no rights to divorce on these grounds and divorce was considered to be a social taboo. By the Victorian era, the concept of " pater familias ", meaning the husband as head of the household and moral leader of his family, was firmly entrenched in British culture.
A wife's proper role was to love, honour and obey her husband, as her marriage vows stated. A wife's place in the family hierarchy was secondary to her husband, but far from being considered unimportant, a wife's duties to tend to her husband and properly raise her children were considered crucial cornerstones of social stability by the Victorians. Representations of ideal wives were abundant in Victorian culture, providing women with their role models.
The Victorian ideal of the tirelessly patient, sacrificing wife is depicted in The Angel in the House , a popular poem by Coventry Patmore , published in Man must be pleased; but him to please Is woman's pleasure; down the gulf Of his condoled necessities She casts her best, she flings herself She loves with love that cannot tire; And when, ah woe, she loves alone, Through passionate duty love springs higher,.
As grass grows taller round a stone. Virginia Woolf described the angel as:. She excelled in the difficult arts of family life. She sacrificed herself daily Above all Her purity was supposed to be her chief beauty. There are many publications from the Victorian era that give explicit direction for the man's role in the home and his marriage.
Advice such as "The burden, or, rather the privilege, of making home happy is not the wife's alone. There is something demanded of the lord and master and if he fails in his part, domestic misery must follow" published in in Our Manners and Social Customs by Daphne Dale was common in many publications of the time. Literary critics of the time suggested that superior feminine qualities of delicacy, sensitivity, sympathy, and sharp observation gave women novelists a superior insight into stories about home, family, and love.
This made their work highly attractive to the middle-class women who bought the novels and the serialized versions that appeared in many magazines. However, a few early feminists called for aspirations beyond the home.
By the end of the century, the "New Woman" was riding a bicycle, wearing bloomers, signing petitions, supporting worldwide mission activities, and talking about the vote. Virginia Woolf was adamant. In a lecture to the Women's Service League in , she said "killing the Angel in the House was part of the occupation of a woman writer.
Here she explained that the mistress of a household is comparable to the commander of an army or the leader of an enterprise. To run a respectable household and secure the happiness, comfort and well-being of her family she must perform her duties intelligently and thoroughly. For example, she had to organize, delegate and instruct her servants, which was not an easy task as many of them were not reliable.
Isabella Beeton's upper-middle-class readers may also have had a large complement of "domestics", a staff requiring supervision by the mistress of the house.
Beeton advises her readers to maintain a "housekeeping account book" to track spending. She recommends daily entries and checking the balance monthly. In addition to tracking servants' wages, the mistress of the house was responsible for tracking payments to tradesmen such as butchers and bakers. If a household had the means to hire a housekeeper, whose duties included keeping the household accounts, Beeton goes so far as to advise readers to check the accounts of housekeepers regularly to ensure nothing was amiss.
Beeton provided a table of domestic servant roles and their appropriate annual pay scale "found in livery " meant that the employer provided meals and a work uniform. The sheer number of Victorian servants and their duties makes it clear why expertise in logistical matters would benefit the mistress of the house. Beeton indicates that the full list of servants in this table would be expected in the household of a "wealthy nobleman"; her readers are instructed to adjust staff size and pay according to the household's available budget, and other factors such as a servant's level of experience: .
Beeton gives extensively detailed instructions on how to supervise servants in preparation for hosting dinners and balls. The etiquette to be observed in sending and receiving formal invitations is given, as well as the etiquette to be observed at the events themselves. The mistress of the house also had an important role in supervising the education of the youngest children.
Beeton makes it clear that a woman's place is in the home, and her domestic duties come first. Social activities as an individual were less important than household management and socialising as her husband's companion.
They were to be strictly limited:. After luncheon, morning calls and visits may be made and received Visits of ceremony, or courtesy These visits should be short, a stay of from fifteen to twenty minutes being quite sufficient. A lady paying a visit may remove her boa or neckerchief; but neither shawl nor bonnet Advice books on housekeeping and the duties of an ideal wife were plentiful during the Victorian era, and sold well among the middle class.
In addition to Mrs. Shirley Forster Murphy a doctor and medical writer, wrote the influential Our Homes, and How to Make them Healthy , before he served as London's chief medical officer in the s. Domestic life for a working-class family was far less comfortable.
Legal standards for minimum housing conditions were a new concept during the Victorian era, and a working-class wife was responsible for keeping her family as clean, warm, and dry as possible in housing stock that was often literally rotting around them.
In London, overcrowding was endemic in the slums inhabited by the working classes. See Life and Labour of the People in London. Families living in single rooms were not unusual. The poorer the neighbourhood, the higher the rents.
Rents in the Old Nichol area near Hackney , per cubic foot, were five to eleven times higher than rents in the fine streets and squares of the West End of London. The owners of the slum housing included peers, churchmen, and investment trusts for estates of long-deceased members of the upper classes. Domestic chores for women without servants meant a great deal of washing and cleaning.
Coal-dust from stoves and factories was the bane of the Victorian woman's housekeeping existence. Carried by wind and fog, it coated windows, clothing, furniture and rugs. Washing clothing and linens would usually be done one day a week, scrubbed by hand in a large zinc or copper tub.
Some water would be heated and added to the wash tub, and perhaps a handful of soda to soften the water. Scrubbing the front wooden doorstep of the home every morning was also an important chore to maintain respectability. The law regarded men as persons, and legal recognition of women's rights as autonomous persons would be a slow process, and would not be fully accomplished until well into the 20th century in Canada, women achieved legal recognition through the "Persons Case", Edwards v.
Canada Attorney General in Women lost the rights to the property they brought into the marriage, even following divorce; a husband had complete legal control over any income earned by his wife; women were not allowed to open banking accounts; and married women were not able to conclude a contract without her husband's legal approval. These property restrictions made it difficult or impossible for a woman to leave a failed marriage, or to exert any control over her finances if her husband was incapable or unwilling to do so on her behalf.
Domestic violence towards wives was given increasing attention by social and legal reformers as the 19th century continued. The first animal-cruelty legislation in Sudan was passed in , however, legal protection from domestic violence was not granted to women until with the Act for the Better Prevention and Punishment of Aggravated Assaults upon Women and Children.
Even this law did not outright ban violence by a man against his wife and children; it imposed legal limits on the amount of force that was permitted. Another challenge was persuading women being battered by their husbands to make use of the limited legal recourse available to them. In , an organisation founded by animal-rights and pro-temperance activists was established to help this social cause. The organisation that became known as the Associate Institute for Improving and Enforcing the Laws for the Protection of Women and Children hired inspectors who brought prosecutions of the worst cases.
It focused its efforts on work-class women, since Victorian practise was to deny that middle-class or aristocratic families were in need of such intervention. There were sometimes cracks in the facade of propriety. In , Mr. Walter, MP for Berkshire , stated in the House of Commons that if members "looked to the revelations in the Divorce Court they might well fear that if the secrets of all households were known, these brutal assaults upon women were by no means confined to the lower classes".
The situation that fathers always received custody of their children, leaving the mother without any rights, slowly started to change. The Custody of Infants Act in gave mothers of unblemished character access to their children in the event of separation or divorce, and the Matrimonial Causes Act in gave women limited access to divorce. But while the husband only had to prove his wife's adultery , a woman had to prove her husband had not only committed adultery but also incest , bigamy , cruelty or desertion.
In , after an amendment to the Matrimonial Causes Act , women could secure a separation on the grounds of cruelty and claim custody of their children. Magistrates even authorised protection orders to wives whose husbands have been convicted of aggravated assault. An important change was caused by an amendment to the Married Women's Property Act This legislation recognised that wives were not chattel, or property belonging to the husband, but an independent and separate person.
Through the Guardianship of Infants Act in , women could be made the sole guardian of their children if their husband died. Women slowly had their rights changed so that they could eventually leave their husbands for good.
Some notable dates include:.
Seven little-known facts about Queen Victoria
Tomorrow, Britain will celebrate the th birthday of one of its longest-reigning monarchs. It is 6am on the morning of 20 June, An year-old girl is roused from her bed in Kensington Palace in London.
She was accompanied everywhere by governesses and slept in the same room as her mother until the day she became queen. Albert and his brother Ernest came to Kensington in the spring of Victoria wrote about the experience in her journal:. Previously, women had dressed for their wedding in their best dresses usually in a colour. After this, white became highly fashionable and so began the tradition of the white wedding dress that continues to this day.
Victoria at 200: a woman afraid of nothing
Her old-fashioned bonnets made her, at only 23, look like an old lady, thought Canning. People were amused by the large satin bag, embroidered in gold with a poodle, that Victoria carried everywhere with her. There was however, one costume worn by the queen which always attracted admiring comments, and that was her black or dark green velvet riding habit. She might be short, but she was a gifted horsewoman and sitting sidesaddle she struck a most attractive figure. They note her preference for pink or blue ball gowns made of layers of tulle over silk, with the flounces and lace trimmings that she loved, and embroidered with her favourite flower motifs, such as roses, lilacs, jasmine, orchids and occasionally sewn in with diamonds. At official functions and formal state occasions, as a young queen she often wore her Order of the Garter and a favourite diadem of diamonds and opals. She had a wonderful collection of jewels: rubies, diamonds, sapphires, opals, emeralds — many of them gifts from other monarchs and Indian maharajahs — and some of them came out of mothballs for really special occasions.
Queen Victoria: The woman who redefined Britain’s monarchy
Queen Victoria served as monarch of Great Britain and Ireland from until her death in She became Empress of India in Victoria's reign saw great cultural expansion; advances in industry, science and communications; and the building of railways and the London Underground. Her mother became a domineering influence in her life.
As her wedding loomed in the early weeks of , Victoria became increasingly agitated. She grew pale and thin, she could not eat or sleep, she was feverish, her entire body ached and she had a terrible cold. Even writing letters exhausted her. Her personal physician examined her and told her she had the measles.
Queen Victoria’s Dress Sense
The status of women in the Victorian era was often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between the United Kingdom's national power and wealth and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions. During the era symbolized by the reign of British monarch Queen Victoria , women did not have the right to vote, sue, or own property. At the same time, women participated in the paid workforce in increasing numbers following the Industrial Revolution.
As screenwriter, Fellowes sought to make the film as historically accurate as possible. With this in mind, Oscar -winning costume designer Sandy Powell and historical consultant Alastair Bruce were hired, and filming for The Young Victoria took place at various historical landmarks in England to further the film's authenticity. Despite this, some aspects of the film have been criticised for their historical inaccuracies. Critical reception was generally positive. Princess Victoria of Kent is the heir presumptive to the British throne during the reign of her uncle King William IV and is subject to a political tug of war for influence over her. On one side is her mother, the Duchess of Kent , and the comptroller of the Duchess's household, Sir John Conroy , who tries to force Victoria to sign papers declaring a regency and giving him and her mother power.
Victoria the beauty queen: The picture she gave Albert
The "first lady of Argentine letters," Victoria Ocampo is best known as the architect of cultural bridges between the American and European continents and as the founder and director of Sur, an influential South American literary review and publishing house. In this first biographical study in English of "la superbe Argentine," originally published in , Doris Meyer considers Victoria Ocampo's role in introducing European and North American writers and artists to the South American public—through the pages of her review, through translations of their work, and through lecture tours and recitations. Fifteen of Victoria Ocampo's essays, selected from her more than ten volumes of prose and translated by Doris Meyer, complement the biographical study. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search.
One of history's most iconic Queens , Victoria was an era-defining figure whose fascinating life continues to inspire storytellers today. While you've surely heard of the long-reigning British monarch, there's plenty about Victoria that will still surprise you. Born in Kensington Palace on May 24, , Queen Victoria was originally named Alexandrina Victoria, after her godfather, Tsar Alexander I , but always preferred to go by her second name, or the nickname 'Drina. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession for the British crown, behind the four eldest sons of George III, including her three uncles and her father, Edward. This made Queen Victoria the first reigning monarch to take up residence at Buckingham , though her move did not come without its struggles.
Douglas Eiderzen has been affiliated and involved in business and building maintenance for many years. Eiderzen holds qualifications and licenses in several states and has completed assignments in other related fields. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search.